IJPQA insists on ethical practices in both human and animal experimentation. Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA (animal) and ICMR (human). The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the ‘Materials and Methods’ section.

Publication Misconduct

To respect the intellectual property rights of others and uphold the standards for academics, MRI is adopting a zero-tolerance policy towards papers associated with publication misconduct. Publication misconduct includes plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, inappropriate authorship, duplicate submission/multiple submissions, overlapping publication, and salami publication. we have developed MRI Publication definitions, policies in line with PILA and COPE Committee standards for publication misconduct, which are as follows:

1. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's thoughts, ideas, data, figures, research methods, or words without giving appropriate credit, or the over-citation of another person's published work.

2. Fabrication: Fabrication is the practice of making up data or results without having performed relevant research.

3. Falsification: Falsification is the practice of changing data or results intentionally such that misleading conclusion is drawn.

4. Inappropriate authorship: Authorship is not appropriately assigned based on the author's contributions.

5. Duplicate submission/multiple submissions: Duplicate submission/multiple submissions refers to the practice of submitting the same manuscript or several manuscripts with minor differences (e.g., differences only in title, keywords, abstract, author order, author affiliations, or a small amount of text) to two or more journals at the same time, or submitting to another journal within an agreed or stipulated period.

6. Overlapping publication: Overlapping publication refers to the practice of publishing a paper overlaps substantially with one already published.

7. Salami publication: Salami publication refers to the practice of slicing data from a large study, could have been reported in a single paper, into different pieces and publishing them in two or more articles, all of which cover the same population, methods, and question.

8. Inappropriate authorship: Authorship is not appropriately assigned based on the author's contributions.

9. Cross-checking of references in connection with content.